1. Krista Flannigan and Robin Fudge Finegan, 1999, "Journey to Justice: A Community-Based Response to Victims Participating in Mass Fatality Trials," unpublished report, Denver, CO: Finegan Flannigan and Associates.
2. Krista Flannigan and Robin Fudge Finegan, 1999.
3. Dean G. Kilpatrick, Daniel W. Smith, Connie L. Best, and Sherry A. Falsetti, 2002, "Evaluation of Victim Satisfaction and Victim Assistance in the Pan Am Flight 103 Bombing Case," final report submitted to the Office for Victims of Crime, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime.
4. Colorado Oklahoma Resource Council Service Survey Results, 1998, unpublished document, Denver, CO.
5. Henri Nouwen, 1975, Reaching Out: The Three Movements of the Spiritual Life, New York: Doubleday, pp. 71, 97.
6. Vicarious trauma is a form of countertransference whereby service providers experience, to a lesser degree, terror, rage, and despair similar to their clients (Judith Herman, 1992, Trauma and Recovery, New York: Basic Books).
7. Dean G. Kilpatrick, David Beatty, and Susan S. Howley, December 1998, The Rights of Crime VictimsDoes Legal Protection Make a Difference? Research in Brief, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, NCJ 173839.
8. Defusing is what occurs when a small group of individuals who have experienced the same trauma discuss their emotional and cognitive reactions on the same day that the traumatic event takes place (Jeffrey T. Mitchell, 1995, "Essentials of Critical Incident Stress Management," in Innovations in Disaster and Trauma Psychology, Volume One: Applications in Emergency Services and Disaster Response, ed. G. Everly, Ellicott City, MD: Chevron Publishing Corporation).
9. See also U.S. Department of Justice, January 2000, Attorney General Guidelines for Victim and Witness Assistance, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. These guidelines were updated in 2011 and revised in May 2012 (PDF 1.8 mb).
10. For more information on the Volunteer Protection Act of 1997, see U.S. Public Law 105-19.
12. Irving D. Yalom, 1985, The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy, 3d edition, New York: Basic Books, p. 106.