1 FORGE, 2005, Sexual Violence in the Transgender Community Survey, unpublished data; G. Kenagy, 2005, "The Health and Social Service Needs of Transgender People in Philadelphia," International Journal of Transgenderism 8(2/3):4956; G. Kenagy and W. Bostwick, 2005, "Health and Social Service Needs of Transgendered People in Chicago," International Journal of Transgenderism 8(2/3):5766.
2 J. Xavier, J.A. Honnold, and J. Bradford, 2007, The Health, Health-Related Needs, and Lifecourse Experiences of Transgender Virginians, Richmond, VA: Community Health Research Initiative, Center for Public Policy, Virginia Commonwealth University, accessed Sept. 7, 2010; C. Reback, P. Simon, C. Bemis, and B. Gatson, 2001, The Los Angeles Transgender Health Study: Community Report, Los Angeles, CA: University of California at Los Angeles; J. Xavier, M. Bobbin, B. Singer, and E. Budd, 2005, "A Needs Assessment of Transgendered People of Color Living in Washington, DC," International Journal of Transgenderism 8(2/3):3147; C.K. McGowan, 1999, Transgender Needs Assessment, New York, NY: New York City Department of Health, HIV Prevention Planning Unit; E. Lombardi, R. Wilchins, D. Priesing, and D. Malouf, 2001, "Gender Violence: Transgender Experiences With Violence and Discrimination," Journal of Homosexuality 42(1):89101; K. Clements, M. Katz, and R. Marx, 1999, The Transgender Community Health Project: Descriptive Results, San Francisco, CA: San Francisco Department of Public Health.
3 J.M. Grant, L.A. Mottet, J. Tanis, J. Harrison, J.L. Herman, and M. Keisling, 2011, Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, accessed Feb. 4, 2011.
4 FORGE, Sexual Violence in the Transgender Community Survey; National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs, 2009, Hate Violence Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People in the United States, New York, NY: National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs, accessed Jan. 28, 2011.
5 J.M. Grant et al., Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey.
6 National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs, 2010, Hate Violence Against the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Communities in the United States in 2009, New York, NY: National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs, accessed Jan. 28, 2011. NCAVP is a coalition of about 40 organizations that focus on serving lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer victims of intimate partner violence, sexual assault, hate crimes, and police misconduct.
7 National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs, Hate Violence Against the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Communities in the United States in 2009. Since the development of this online guide, new information on hate violence against these communities has been made available. See NCAVP's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Hate Violence in 2012.
11 Analysis based on narratives in the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs' Hate Violence Against the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Communities in the United States in 2009.
12 Among FORGE survey respondents who self-reported details of the types of violence they experienced, at least 21 percent of those who experienced intimate partner violence were sexually assaulted as part of that violence. FORGE, 2011, Transgender Individuals' Knowledge of and Willingness to Use Sexual Assault Programs, unpublished survey data, Morehouse School of Medicine's Institutional Review Board.
13 M.L. Walters, J. Chen, and M.J. Breiding, 2013, The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation, Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1820, accessed Dec. 13, 2013.
15 J. Risser, A. Shelton, S. McCurdy, J. Atkinson, P. Padgett, B. Useche, B. Thomas, and M. Williams, 2005, "Sex, Drugs, Violence and HIV Status Among Male-to-Female Transgender Persons in Houston, Texas," in W. Bockting and A. Avery, eds., Transgender Health and HIV Prevention: Needs Assessment Studies from Transgender Communities Across the United States, Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, 6774.
17 M. Ciarlante and K. Fountain, Ph.D., 2010, Why It Matters: Rethinking Victim Assistance for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Victims of Hate Violence and Intimate Partner Violence, Washington, DC: National Center for Victims of Crime, and New York, NY: New York City Anti-Violence Project, accessed Jan. 28, 2011.
18 Anecdotal data from the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. Also see the Remembering Our Dead Web site, which highlights the stories of some transgender individuals who were murdered, and the Transgender Day of Remembrance Web site, which documents some of the details of victims who were killed.
23 American Psychiatric Association, 1994, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; A.I. Lev, 2004, Transgender Emergence: Therapeutic Guidelines for Working With Gender-Variant People and Their Families, Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press.
25 N. Ray, 2006, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth: An Epidemic of Homelessness, New York, NY: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute and the National Coalition for the Homeless; Lambda Legal and Child Welfare League of America, 2012, LGBTQ Youth Risk Data, New York, NY: Lamda Legal, Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.
26 K.F. Balsam and A.R. D'Augelli, 2006, "The Victimization of Older LGBT Adults: Patterns, Impact, and Implications for Intervention," in D. Kimmel, T. Rose, and S. David, eds., Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Aging: Research and Clinical Perspectives, New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 112.