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Serving Transgender Victims of Sexual Assault
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June 2014
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Notes

1 FORGE, 2005, Sexual Violence in the Transgender Community Survey, quotations from narrative response, unpublished data.

2 J.G. Allen, 2005, Coping With Trauma: Hope Through Understanding, 2d ed., Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., 70.

3 Ibid.

4 Ibid.

5 Pansexual differs from bisexual in that it does not imply there are only two genders.

6 Polyamorous individuals are capable of loving more than one person at the same time. Polyamory is consensual non-monogamy, which may result in different types of relationships.

7 FORGE, 2005, "Implications," quotation from narrative response to the Sexual Violence in the Transgender Community Survey, accessed Feb. 13, 2013.

8 FORGE, Sexual Violence in the Transgender Community Survey.

9 Ibid.

10 Ibid.

11 M. Ciarlante and K. Fountain, Ph.D., 2010, Why It Matters: Rethinking Victim Assistance for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Victims of Hate Violence and Intimate Partner Violence, Washington, DC: National Center for Victims of Crime, and New York, NY: New York City Anti-Violence Project, accessed Jan. 28, 2011.

12 FORGE, Sexual Violence in the Transgender Community Survey.

13 National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs, 2012, Hate Violence Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Communities in the United States in 2011, New York, NY: National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs, 43. Since the development of this online guide, new information has been made available. See NCAVP's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Hate Violence in 2012.

14 J.M. Grant, L.A. Mottet, J. Tanis, J. Harrison, J.L. Herman, and M. Keisling, 2011, Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, accessed Feb. 4, 2011.

15 FORGE, "Implications."

16 FORGE, Sexual Violence in the Transgender Community Survey.

17 A.C. McFarlane and B.A. van der Kolk, 1996, "Conclusions and Future Directions," in A.C. van der Kolk, A.C. McFarlane, and L. Weisaeth, eds., Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society, New York, NY: The Guilford Press, 559–575.

18 Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, 2006, Guidelines for Care of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Patients, Washington, DC: Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, 14, accessed July 18, 2013.

19 Ibid.

20 Public Health: Seattle and King County, 2005, Culturally Competent Care for GLBT People: Recommendations for Health Care Providers, Seattle, WA: Public Health: Seattle and King County, accessed July 18, 2013.

21 See WPATH's "Standards of Care."

22 The three largest LGBT health centers follow informed-consent protocols. See Fenway Community Health Center's "Protocol for Hormone Therapy," Tom Waddell Health Center's "Protocols for Hormonal Reassignment of Gender," and Howard Brown Health Center's THInC program.

23 National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs, Hate Violence Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Communities in the United States in 2011, 36–37.

24 FORGE, Sexual Violence in the Transgender Community Survey.

25 Ibid.

26 L. Cook-Daniels, 2009, "'Atypical' Sexual Abuse Survivors and Perpetrators: Where Are the Male Victims and Female Perpetrators? (Part Two of Two)," Victimization of the Elderly and Disabled 11(5).

27 Ibid.

28 FORGE, Sexual Violence in the Transgender Community Survey.

29 Ibid.

30 Ibid.

31 Ibid.

32 Ibid.

33 Grant et al., Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey.

34 "Noncongruent" in this context means that an individual has primary and/or secondary sex characteristics that an observer would not expect based on that person's gender identity or clothed appearance.

35 Grant et al., Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey.

36 D. McWilliams, D. Fournier, B.A. Booth, P. Burke, and J. Kauffman, 2008, "Legal Issues of Importance to Clinicians," in H.J. Makadon, K.H. Mayer, J. Potter, and H. Goldhammer, eds., Fenway Guide to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Health, Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians, 446–447.

37 J. Xavier, J.A. Honnold, and J. Bradford, 2007, The Health, Health-Related Needs, and Lifecourse Experiences of Transgender Virginians. Richmond, VA: Virginia HIV Community Planning Committee and Virginia Department of Health.

38 Public Health: Seattle and King County, 2005, Culturally Competent Care for GLBT People: Recommendations for Health Care Providers.

39 C.K. McGowan, 1999, Transgender Needs Assessment, New York, NY: New York City Department of Health, HIV Prevention Planning Unit; Xavier et al., The Health, Health-Related Needs, and Lifecourse Experiences of Transgender Virginians; J. Xavier, M. Bobbin, B. Singer, and E. Budd, 2005, "A Needs Assessment of Transgendered People of Color Living in Washington, DC," International Journal of Transgenderism 8(2/3):31–47.

40 G. Kenagy and W. Bostwick, 2005, "Health and Social Service Needs of Transgendered People in Chicago," International Journal of Transgenderism 8(2/3):57–66; J. Zians, 2006, The San Diego County Transgender Assessment Report, San Diego, CA: Family Health Centers of San Diego, CA, accessed Sept. 7, 2010; L. Carson, 2009, Physical and Emotional Health Needs of Transgender Individuals Living in Philadelphia: Summary of Key Findings, Philadelphia, PA: Public Health Management Corporation; Grant et al., Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey.

41 Center of Excellence for Transgender Health, 2011, "Insurance Issues," Primary Care Protocol for Transgender Patient Care, San Francisco, CA: University of California, Department of Family and Community Medicine, accessed May 7, 2011.

42 FORGE, 2011, Transgender Individuals' Knowledge of and Willingness to Use Sexual Assault Programs, unpublished survey data, Morehouse School of Medicine's Institutional Review.